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Slađana Divković dr.med., Acu Medic Centar Zagreb


Proper nourishment, along with regular physical activity and avoiding harmful habits, is an integral part of a healthy lifestyle. We know that food is, in a manner of speaking, our fuel: it ensures our survival, enables us to move, enables the functioning of the organs and provides energy for the organism as a whole. Everything we consume, after it is absorbed, ends up as energy inside the cell. Each of the 75 trillion human cells works as a small individual micro-entity and has its own organelles, just as an organism has its organs.
After a meal, we feel full and satisfied, but have we ever wondered how metabolism eventually produces cell energy?
Everything we eat disintegrates into simpler components during the metabolic process: complex carbohydrates into simple sugars, proteins into amino acids, and fat into glycerol (alcohol) and fatty acids. The decomposition of complex carbohydrates yields simple sugars: glucose, fructose and galactose, glucose being the most common. Therefore, glucose is our fuel. It is also the sole source of energy for brain cells. However, glucose cannot be used for energy production in the cell immediately upon its absorption, but is gradually cleaved in many consecutive phases (the respiratory chain), releasing small quantities of energy in the form of ATP (adenosine-triphosphate), which we consider cell energy.
The part of the cell where cell energy is produced is called mitochondria or power plant. The energy obtained from nutrients and oxygen is released in the mitochondria, providing most of the energy necessary for the functioning of the cell. In conclusion, energy expenditure or metabolism can be expressed with the following formula:
 Even though power plants are present in every cell, their number varies from several hundred to several thousand, which depends on the amount of energy the individual cell needs. Mitochondria are usually ball-shaped, but they can also be rod-shaped, and they consist of an outer and inner membrane. The inner membrane has numerous folds which form internal compartments. These compartments hold enzymes needed for nutrient oxidation and it is precisely here that cell energy is produced. In the power plants Coenzyme Q10 acts as electron carrier, producing molecules of adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) as part of a chain reaction.

ATP is used as cell energy. At the same time, the nutrients that are oxidized in the cell release energy for production of new ATP, referred to as the body's “molecular unit of currency” because it is continually spent and gained (by means of nutrients entering the cell and used to produce ATP).

 Cell energy is employed for 3 important groups of cell functions:

  1. cell membrane transport
  2. chemical compound formation in the cell (protein synthesis)
  3. mechanical work (contraction of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles)

Coenzyme Q10 is a substance similar to vitamins and it is soluble in fat. It is present every cell of oxygen-dependent organisms and for this reason it is also referred to as ubiquinone (all-present quinone). For example, plants contain plastoquinone, bacteria contain menaquinone, while animals and people have ubiquinone or Coenzyme Q10.
Of the 10 standard coenzymes, only Q10 can be found in the human body. The highest concentration of Coenzyme Q10 is in the heart, kidneys, liver and pancreas. Even though the liver can synthesize Q10, as the body ages, its level gradually decreases. This process begins quite early – somewhere at the age of 30 – while after the age of 50 its synthesis is 20 – 60% smaller than in a 20-year-old person. When this kind of Q10-deficiency is measured, it is necessary to introduce it in the form of a food supplement. The greatest decrease in Q10 concentration occurs in the heart, where its amount per gram is largest. This means that its effect is particularly beneficial for the heart muscle. 


Along with the well-known antioxidant vitamins and minerals – Vitamins A, C and E and minerals such as magnesium, zinc and selenium – Q10 also plays an important role as a powerful fighter against free radicals, unstable molecules formed by oxidation processes in the cells. If the amount of free radicals exceeds the amount of antioxidants, this can lead to the development of a number of disorders such as cardiovascular and malignant diseases, accelerated aging process etc.  
Furthermore, this process is facilitated by stress, smoking, physical inactivity and improper nutrition. To gain optimum antioxidant defense, we need a substantial amount of antioxidants in a combination specifically tailored for each individual. Together with Vitamin E, CoQ10 hinders the oxidation of bad LDL cholesterol, retarding the atherosclerotic process. It also strengthens the heart muscle and is recommended as therapy supplement in cases of:

  1. cardiomyopathy(deterioration of the myocardium function)
  2. chronic heart failure (stimulates the function and hemodynamic parameters of the heart)
  3. preparation before heart surgery
  4. angina pectoris
  5. recuperation after myocardial infarction or stroke
  6. synthetic statin therapy, which lowers blood cholesterol but reduces internal production of CoQ10
  7. beta-blocker and antihypertensive therapy
  8. arrhythmia


The heart muscle is particularly sensitive to intense physical strain and higher energy expenditures. For example, climbing stairs expends 17 times more energy than lying in bed. CoQ10 helps maintain energy in the mitochondria of the heart muscle for longer periods of time, ensuring better blood perfusion and oxygen supply. As a result, CoQ10 has found wide application as supplemental cardiovascular therapy, especially in Japan and the USA, where it is already being manufactured in 400 mg doses.

As mentioned above, the main task of Q10 is production of cell energy, which is why it has a wide spectrum of applications. It:

  • enhances the proper function of skeletal muscles and the heart muscle
  • stimulates the immune system
  • protects the stomach and duodenum and can be beneficial in ulcer treatment
  • reduces side-effects of chemotherapy
  • alleviates allergy symptoms, asthma and respiratory diseases
  • helps diabetes regulation
  • alleviates symptoms of chronic fatigue and exhaustion
  • strengthens muscles in athletes (heightens physical strength and endurance)

Scientific research confirms that if Coenzyme Q10 is taken in quantities larger than 100 mg per day, it helps reduce migraine occurrence, improves sperm motility (asthenospermia) and retards the progress of Parkinson's disease. Other research has shown that it has beneficial effect on degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.
The most common causes of CoQ10-deficiency in the organism are

  1. older age, because of reduced synthesis
  2. chronic malnutrition and cachexia (reduced intake and absorption of food in general)
  3. stress and infections


Locally, Coenzyme Q10 is used for skincare and retardation of the skin's aging process (revitalizes, reduces wrinkles). It stimulates blood perfusion and it is one of the indispensable ingredients in mature skin care. It has also found wide application in gum protection products and especially in treating advanced periodontosis.


The best way to use it is to combine it with other strong antioxidants, which secures optimum synergistic effect.
Administration is individual as it is adjusted to the particular health status of each person.
Recommended daily intake is 60 – 150 mg..
The world's largest Q10 manufacturer and user is Japan, which has developed Q10 production based on natural yeast fermentation processes.
The duration of therapy depends upon symptoms and clinical condition of the patient. For chronic fatigue or weakened immunity in young adults the recommended duration is from several weeks to several months. Chronic patients need not interrupt administration and are advised to continue with the prescribed therapy.
It has antioxidant action and significantly protects the body and prolongs its youth. Its action enhances the cardiovascular and immune systems. Q10-deficiency, and antioxidant-deficiency in general, can play an important role in cases of obesity.


  1. each capsule contains 60 mg of coenzyme Q10 and it is the only registered form of that strength on our market
  2. CoQ10 comes in its natural form – oleous solution in a soft capsule, which ensures better uptake
  3. Vitamin E is added for optimum antioxidant action, producing optimum synergistic effect
  4. one capsule per day is enough

Slađana Divković dr.med., Acu Medic Centar Zagreb, dopredsjednica Udruge za prevenciju prekomjerne težine


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Proper nourishment, along with regular physical activity and avoiding harmful habits, is an integral part of a healthy lifestyle. We know that food is, in a manner of speaking, our fuel: it ensures our survival, enables us to move, enables the functioning of the organs and provides energy for the organism as a whole. Everything we consume, after it is absorbed, ends up as energy inside the cell.
Slađana Divković dr.med., Acu Medic Centar Zagreb
Coenzyme Q10 – the Modern Panacea*
In 1957, Dr Frederick Crane from the University of Wisconsin discovered the miraculous coenzyme from the mitochondrion of the beef heart and sent its discovery to the pharmaceutical company Merck, where it was isolated and named Q10 due to its chemical composition (quinone and 10 isoprene).
Written by: Dubravka Tarle, MD, Spec. of Clinical Pharmacology; Prof. Zvonimir Pavlek, PhD
Dietary Supplements and Modern Way of Life
Nutritionists recommend that for an optimum balance it would be necessary to take five servings of fresh fruit and vegetables a day, which is difficult to achieve in continuity. This caused a boom of dietary supplements facilitating an overall balance of the organism, which bring vitality and the harmony of body and spirit.
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